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Dog  Welfare in a Research Environment

Purpose-bred dogs benefit from the advantages of being able to be trained with scripted and controlled experiences and it is this wide range of physical and emotional stimuli that builds confidence for methods of coping. Baby dogs are handled between birth and weaning has been proven to impact a wide range of aspects that include growth rate and weight gain, learning exploration, emotionality as well as physiology and response to water and food deprivation, and the occurrence of certain pathogens or diseases (Committee on Distress and Pain in Laboratory Animals,). It is particularly critical for puppies to be socialized to people and other dogs and be acclimated different environments from 3-to-12 weeks of age (Scott and Fuller, 1965). The reinforcement of socialization and acclimation should be an ongoing process as dogs have been reported to exhibit behavioral decline when older (Boxall and co., 2004).

Little puppies possess a definite development need for sustained, close interactions with their fellow conspecifics (Scott and Fuller 1965) and this can be easily accommodated in a breeding facility as long as there are no problems with the health of the puppy, its mother or littermates. If a puppy has separation from his littermates or mother, procedures should be in place to provide human-to-human interaction, and reduce as much as possible the time it is separated. It is important for puppies to experience separation early in their development in a comfortable environment that does not have physical restrictions too. Dogs tend to become excessively sensitive when they finally are confronted with separation from other littermates(Elliot and Scott 1961) Therefore, small separations can be less stressful.

A crucial part of puppy care is to teach them to gain confidence in the direction of others as part of its social framework. Similar to how puppies learn to be guided by their mothers the staff who care for animals must help them learn to accept human control in a non-threatening manner. It’s beneficial to gauge how well pups have a positive relationship with humans and are comfortable with their control (Meunier, 2006; Wolfle, 1990).

For dogs older than 10 years that were purchased from dealers who are random sources, the longer-term background information on the dog is not available. The temperament test will be the major determination concerning the dog’s ability to be utilized in a laboratory. Unfortunately, tests for temperament aren’t well-standardized or reliable, yet general traits can be assessed (Beaver, 2009). A calm, non-aggressive and able dogs are preferred.View chapter Book for purchase

Cloning of Canines

Byeong Chun Lee, in Principles of Cloning (Second Edition), 2014

History of Dog Cloning

Dog cloning began when large-breed dogs were used as clone models. “Snuppy,” the first cloned dog, was born in 2005 , using cells from a donor male Afghan dog. The results, titled “Dogs cloned from adult somatic cells,” were published in the journal Nature (Lee and co.. 2005). The first dog to be cloned created through the use of an in vivo matured oocyte. The oocyte was then enucleated, and then fused with an adult skin cell of the dog who donated it. The next year three females who were that were cloned Afghan hounds were born (Jang et al. 2007), and we monitored their growth and evaluated their reproductive ability by artificial breeding with “Snuppy.” From these research, we discovered that female and male dogs can be cloned by SCNT and that they possess normal reproductive capabilities (Park et al. 2010). in 2006, we discovered that a cloned dog was created using a donor who was 14 years old (Jang et al. 2008). A fibroblast donor cell was injected into the infected oocyte of a big breed dog. After fusing the somatic cells from the dog with a small size and the oocyte of the larger breed dog and reconstitued SCNT embryos were transferred into an oviduct of the larger breed of dog. In this manner, we showed how large breed dogs could be used as oocyte donors as surrogate mother to duplicate a small breed dog (Jang et al., 2008). The same year two female cloned beagles were created using fetal embryonic cells with a large breed recipient (Hong et al., 2009a). Based on these study, researchers discovered that dog fibroblasts derived from the fetal period up to old age can be reprogrammed by SCNT. The years 2006 and 2007, female clones (Kim et al. 2007) and male wolves (Oh et al. (2008)) were successfully created using SCNT interspecies; this finding indicated that the dog-cloning method has the potential to help in the conservation of canine species in extremely stressful situations, such as sudden death. Seven cloned drug sniffing dogs were developed in 2007 from an animal with this particular ability (Oh et al. 2009). In the following year, a cancer-sniffing breed was in the hands of SCNT in the year 2008 (Park et al. 2009a) and a quarantine dog to detect the presence of an agricultural product in 2012. (Oh et al. (2013)). Cloned drug-sniffing dogsand breeds that have been cloned to sniff out cancer, and the cloned quarantine dogs have been confirmed, after having carried out these tasks on the job. The results suggest that canines SCNT methods are capable of creating dogs with exceptional capabilities. In the end, a cloned dog was developed that consistently showed the expression of the red fluorescent proteins (RFP) gene (Hong et al. 2009b) and another was able to express GFP, the green fluorescent (GFP) gene (Kim et al. (2011)). It was proved by germline transmission using natural breeding methods that these dogs were transgenic.

Dogs have been cloned in the last eight years. A large amount of history has been madeand there’s no doubt canine SCNT techniques will continue to find applications in a myriad of areas in the near future.View chapterPurchase book

Canine Genomics and Genetics

Elaine A. Ostrander, Falina Williams, in Reference Module in Life Sciences, 2019

Breeds and Population Structure

The largest body to register dog breeds worldwide is known as the Federation Cynologique Internationale, which acknowledged 339 breeds at the time of 2013. The 339 breeds are divided into 10 groups based upon their appearance, behavior or appearance. Others niche populations exist and are “in process” and technically as a whole, if not formalized they are a breed, yielding estimates of over 500 breeds of domestic dogs around the world.

The American Kennel Club (AKC) currently recognizes 189 breeds. many however, not all of them, selected on the basis of appearance. To be a registered breed the breeding population needs to not just conform to established standards of body conformity as well as behavior. However, also those changes must “breed true.” That means that crossing between members of the breed should produces puppies that meet the same standards of the parents. For a single dog to be registered as a breed, it must be born to parents who are registered as members with the same breed. Recent studies of molecular biology using various SNPs have given a lot of insight as to how dog breeds have a relationship with each other and reveal the likelihood that a variety of breeds developed (Fig. 1).

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